Mahmud Ghazni was a powerful and wise ruler. During his reign he
extended the Ghaznawid empire from the Tigris to the Ganges River and from the
Indian Ocean to the Amu Darya. His capital was the city of Ghazni, and Mahmud
helped make it the greatest cultural center in the world at that time.
He cultivated scientific and literary advancement, and filled his court with all sorts of
scholars, poets, and scientists.