Chronological History of Afghanistan
Part II (652 - 1747)
- Islamic era established with the Ghaznavid Dynasty (962-1140)
- Afghanistan becomes the center of Islamic power and civilization.
- Mahmud Ghazni dies.
- Conflicts between various Ghaznavid rulers arise and as a result the empire starts to crumple.
- Ghorid leaders from central Afghanistan capture and burn Ghazni, then move on to conquer India.
- Invasion of Afghanistan by Genghis Khan
- Destruction of Irrigation systems by Genghis Khan, which turned fertile soil into permanent deserts.
- Marco Polo crossed Afghan Turkistan
- Descendants of earlier Ghorid rulers reassert control over Afghanistan.
- The rule of Timour-i-Lang (Tamerlane)
- An Afghan named Buhlul invades Delhi, and seizes the throne. He finds the Lodi dynasty.
- Babur, founder of the Moghul dynasty takes control of Kabul
- Bayazid Roshan (Afghan intellectual) revolts against the power of the Moghul government. Roshan was killed in a battle with the Moghuls in 1579--but his struggle for independence continued.
- Khushhal Khan Khattak (Afghan warrior-poet) initiates a national uprising against the foreign Moghul government.
- Mir Wais (forerunner of Afghan independence) makes Kandahar independent of Safavid Persia that had ruled it since 1622.
- Mir Wais dies peacefully, and lies in a mausoleum outside of Kandahar.
- Mir Wais' son, Mir Mahmud, invades Persia and occupies Isfahan. At the same time, the Durranis revolt, and terminate the Persian occupation of Herat.
- (April 25)--Mir Mahmud is mysteriously killed after going mad.
- Afghans start to lose control of Persia.
- Nadir Shah (head of Persia) occupies southwest Afghanistan, and southeast Persia.
- Nadir Shah takes Kandahar.
- Nadir Shah is assassinated, and the Afghans rise once again. Afghans, under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Abdali retake Kandahar, and establish modern Afghanistan.