Mahmud Tarzi was one of Afghanistan’s greatest intellectuals. He is known as the father of Afghan journalism. During the reigns of Amir Habibullah and King Amanullah, he held important government positions, and was an important advisor. He worked closely with King Amanullah to bring about reforms, and to modernize the nation. He was highly critical of various religious figures whose ideas kept Islam and its development in the dark ages. He died in Istanbul Turkey in 1933.