Babrak Karmal was a Soviet puppet. He was President from 1979 to when the Soviets finally grew tired of him and replaced him with Dr. Najibullah in 1986. He was a founding member of the PDPA (People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan), and served as its secretary general. After differences with other important members, he led his own faction of the PDPA known as Parcham. When he was replaced by Dr. Najibullah, Karmal left to live in Moscow, he returned to Afghanistan in 1991, only to leave once more. He eventually died in Moscow of liver disease on December 3, 1996. His body was brought back to Afghanistan and buried in Hairatan. Karmal’s origins are unclear, he claimed to be a Pashtun, but one Afghan historian wrote that Karmal might actually have Kashmiri roots.